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AQ-Link™ Technology

For covalent immobilization of functional groups and biomolecules.


The AQ-Link™ technology is based on a photochemical method for covalent immobilization of functional groups and biomolecules. The anthraquinone (AQ) molecule can be immobilized onto all surfaces containing -CHx- groups, e.g., polymeric substrates as well as silanized glass, upon irradiation with soft UV-light (290-400 nm).

AQ-Link Technology
Figure 1.  AQ-Link™ formation


Benefits of the AQ-Link™ technology  

  • Broad applicability - compatible with different formats e.g. microplates, PCR tubes, polymeric slides, silanised glass slides, petri dishes, magnetic beads etc
  • Low reagent consumption
  • Compatibility with aqueous solutions
  • Useful for covalent immobilization of biomolecules using a 1- or 2-step immobilization strategy
  • Useful for immobilization of functional groups
  • Immobilization of oligonucleotides, PCR products, peptides, proteins etc.
  • Can render polymer surfaces more hydrophilic
  • Compatible with ELISA techniques
  • Compatible with fluorescent dyes
  • Please contact us regarding availability of the AQ-Link™ Phosphoamidite for convenient introduction of AQ into oligonucleotides


Biomolecules can generally be immobilized using two different approaches (Figure 2). In a one-step immobilization process, the biomolecules are attached to the AQ-molecule before UV light immobilization. In a two-step immobilization process, an AQ-reagent consisting of AQ, a linker and a functional group are immobilized before the chosen biomolecule is immobilized.

AQ-Link  technology
Figure 2. Biomolecules can be immobilized in two different ways.



The range of applicability of the AQ-Link chemistry is illustrated in the table below. The ability to mix and match the various ligands and solid supports utilized with the AQ-Link™ provides unique opportunities to design optimized application-specific surfaces.

Table 1. AQ-Link™ applicability
Ligands Solid supports Formats
DNA Polystyrene Microplates
LNA™, PNA Polyethylene Microarray slides
Peptides & proteins Polypropylene PCR tubes
Polysaccharides Polycarbonate Test tubes
Glutathione Polymethyle methacrylate Petri plates
Metal chelates Nylon Tissue culture ware
Steroids PVDF Membranes
Pesticides Silanized glass Dipsticks
Amines RS treated glass Filtration matrixes
Carboxylic acids   Magnetic beads
Electrophilic groups    

AQ-Link™ Microplates
For covalent coupling of biotinylated molecules, proteins and peptides and for detection of histidine-tagged and GST fusion proteins (available from Nunc under the name Immobilizer™)

Learn more about AQ-Link™ Microplates


AQ-Link™ Phosphoramidite
The AQ-Link™ Phosphoramidite is used for the introduction of the photosensitive AQ in the 5’-end of an oligonucleotide for region-specific immobilization of oligonucleotides onto e.g., microplates.


  1. Koch et al., Bioconjugate Chem., 2000, 11, 474-483.
  2. Jacobsen et al., Clin Chem., 2002, 48(4), 657-60. b) Jacobsen et al. Nucleic Acids Res., 2002, 30 (19), e100. c) Ørum et al., Clin. Chem., 1999, 45, 1898-1905.


AQ-Link™ Amino
The AQ-Link™ Amino reagent is used for covalent coupling of for example phosphate or carbolic acid containing biomolecules such as polysaccharides and peptides.


  1. Jauho et al., J. Imm. Met., 2000, 242, 133-143.


AQ-Link™ Carboxylic Acid
The AQ-Link™ Carboxylic Acid reagent is used for covalent coupling of for example amino containing biomolecules such as proteins and peptides.


  1. Bruun et al., J. Imm. Met., 2000, 240, 133-142.
  2. Jensen et al., Innovations & Perspectives in Solid Phase Synthesis & Combinatorial Libraries, Fourth International Symposium, 1996, 419-422.


AQ-Link™ Electrophile
The AQ-Link™ Electrophile reagent is used for activation of polymeric surfaces such as microplates for subsequent reaction with amines or thiols.


  1. Jauho et al., Prenat.Diagn., 2003, 23, 898-900.
  2. Jensen et al., Am. J. Pathol., 2004, 164 (4), 1347-1359

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